Crop Production And Management

We get our food from the plants and animals. The particles of growing crops is called agriculture. sometime, the term ‘agriculture’ is loosely used to cover the rearing of animals as well. Usually, however, the rearing of animals is referred to as livestock farming and animal husbandry .

GROWING CROPS :

Plants that grow in the large scale is called crops.

In India crops are divided into the two parts on the basis of the season of sowing. first is Kharif crops and secondary Rabi crops.

In the kharif crops are grown in the monsoon example are rice ,Maize ,jute and cotton etc.

In the Rabi crops are grown in the October example are weeds ,mustard ,gram and pea etc.

Crops need sufficient air water sunlight and nutrition to grow well and it is the first crops days by the ancient people was developed from the seat of wild grass later it become an important food crop.

There are many types of preparation of crops :

1)Preparing the soil.

2)Sowing the seed.

3)Improving soil fertility.

4)Irrigation.

5)Crop protection.

6)Harvesting.

7)Storage.

1) Preparing the soil :

The first step in the preparation of crops is the preparation of the soil. This includes three types of preparation of soil is plugging living and manuring.

(a) Ploughing= ploughing involve the loose and turn the soil it can be pulled by an animal or a tractor tractor can be used only in the field are large enough.

(b) Levelling = After the plugging the big jack of soil are broken in press down lighting lightning with a level this process is called living all live like a black can be drive by animals or tractor.

(c) Manuring = Many manners and fertilizers are added before the sowing of seeds and some later sowing seed.

2)Showing seed:

Showing is the process of putting the seed in the soil ,before sowing seeds ,they should be chosen properly so that good quality healthy and disease free seeds are sown. we use the seed drill for put the seed in the farms .It has a funnel- shaped seed-bawl connected to several tubes .The drill is attached to a plough make furrows along the field, the seed-bowl are release through the tubes .

3)Improving soil fertility :

Use the manual fertilizer for the higher and earn more profit .

Manure is a natural thing made up of leaves , stem ,peels of fruit and vegetable etc. It is a biodegradable manure.

Fertilizer is a man- made thangs and made up of salt and other chemical etc. It is throw in field in small amount.

4)Irrigation:

The process of providing water two crops is known as irrigation .There are natural and man -made. Natural is rainfall and Man-made Tube well and other modern method etc.

Methods of irrigation:

The process of water is distributed over the fields is different types.

(a) Furrow Irrigation = it is the process in which the water flow in the Canal and the tree take the water from the canal.

(b) Basin Irrigation = The field is flooded with water by making bunds all around it. This is called basin irrigation.

(c)Drip irrigation= it is prepared in areas it involve the use of pipes fitted with small tubes called emitters. The pipes are laid over or under the soil ,and the emitter release water drop by drop around the roots of the plants.

(d) Sprinkler Irrigation = pipes fitted with sprinkler are laid over or along the field .The sprinkler have rotating heads, which spray water over the crops.

5)Crop Protection = We use the many kinds of pesticides to protect our crops like: weedicide and pesticides etc. Weeds are the unwanted plants that grow near the crops and destroy the crops. we use the weedicide to separate the weeds from the crops.

6) Harvesting:

The process of cutting and gathering of crops is called harvesting. we use the harvester to separate the husk from the grain and the other ancient method is winoing in the wind the grains are throw the height heavy particle like grain are settle down in the surface and the light has are flew away.

7)Storage:

After all the preparation of crops are store in Pacific place .Before the storage we dry all the crops .Because in the wet crops the pesticides are attached with the crops that’s why we dry the crops before storage.

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