Chapter : 1 The French Revolution

Notes of chapter

Topics :

  1. Introduction
  2. French society during the late 18th century
  3. The outbreak of the revolution
  4. Abolishment of monarchy
  5. Role of women in the revolution
  6. The Abolishment of slavery
  7. Revolution and everyday life
  8. Napoleon dictatorship

Introduction:

On the morning of 14 July 1789, the city of Paris was in a state of alarm. The king had commanded troops to move into the city. Rumours spread that he would soon order the army to open fire upon citizens, citizen decided to make the army fight against the troops. Some 7000 men and women gathering in the front of the town hall to fight against the troops.

All the people military went to prison, the Bastille. They won the Bastille and these days called the ‘French National Day’.

French society during the late 18th century:

  1. During the 13th century, the Bourbon family rule over France.
  2. In 1774, Louis 16 of the Bourbon family of Kings ascended the throne of France.
  3. When he was born 20 years old and he married the Austrian princess Marie Antoinette.
  4. When he ruled over France, the financial condition of France is very bad.
  5. The currency of France is Livres.
  6. French society divided into three states Clergy, Nobility and Pleasantry.
  7. He thought that he take the tax from the 3rd estate of France to maintain the financial condition.

Subsistence Crises :

The subsistence crisis is increased by the following condition:
• The French population is increased.
• Demand for food grain is increased.
because of this condition food prices increased and it is possible to purchase the bread for the third estate.

A growing middle class envisages as an end to privilege:

• Lawyers and Administrative were educated and believe that no group in society should be privileged by birth.
• Rather of a person’s social position must depend on his merit.
• These ideas and visiting a society based on Freedom equal laws and opportunity of all.

Contribution of the philosopher :
Montesquieu, Rousseau and John Locke are the philosopher who published the idea of Equality Liberty Fertanity in the book of the spirit of the law, the social contract and two Treatises of government.

The outbreak of the revolution:

  1. On 5 may 1789 Louis XVI called together and assembly of an estate general to pass a proposal for new taxes.
  2. The meeting is held in the Versailles.
  3. About 300 representatives from the first and second estate and the 600 represented from the third estate.
  4. No man and pleasant has come in the form of representative.
  5. The traditional in following in this meeting is ‘one estate one vote’.
  6. The third estate come front for his right, they give the condition in the assembly ‘one member one vote’.
  7. But the Louis 16 not ready to take this condition and left the Assembly.
  8. On 20 June 1789, they together collect in the indoor tennis court and declared as a national assembly.
  9. They decided to take all the power of Louis XVI and make a constitution.
  10. Mirabeau and Abbe Sieyes were two the members of clergy and priest write many articles of the topic of 3rd estate.
  11. The Rumor was spread in the French that the military destroys the crops of the pleasant, because of this rumour the Louis XVI was very afraid.
  12. On 14 July, the agitated crowd stormed and destroyed the Bastille.
  13. Make the constitution and take all power of first and second estate.
  14. • Abolished the tax system.

Constitutional Assembly:

• In1791, the national assembly make a constitution, the main motive of this constitution the power of Louis XVI to the legislature, executive and judiciary.
• In 1791, the monarch is converted into a constitutional monarchy.
• During the time society divided into two citizens the active citizen and passive citizen.
Active citizen has the right to vote but the Passage citizen has the right to vote.
• Due to this national assembly, the basic rights of man was received by the people.

France abolishes the monarchy and becomes a Republic :

  1. Because of the revolution in Russia, the neighbouring country of Russia decided the war to France.
  2. The national assembly declared the war against Austria and Prussia.
  3. Thousand of volunteer thronged from the provinces to join the army.
  4. All the political right was given only to rich people.
  5. The National Anthem of France is ‘Marseilles’.
  6. All the middle-class people take help through the political club the name of a famous club was a Jacobin club.
  7. In the Jacobin club, the member was shopkeeper, shoes maker and sweeper.
  8. Maximilian Robespierre was the leader of the Jacobin club.
  9. On 10 August 1792, the member of Jacobin club attack to the king’s palace.
  10. 21 September 1792, the monarch what’s finished from France.
  11. After the abolishment of the monarchy, the maximum is ruled all over Russia.
  12. Maximilian was killed by the people same as that he kill the people with Guillotine.
  13. The guillotine was the device consisting of two poles and a blade with which a person is beheaded.

A directory rules France:

• The Fall of the Jacobin government the power has come in the hand of the rich people.
• They make a new constitution and to Legislative Assembly and elected a directory with the five members.
• After some time the fight was held between the legislative assembly and a directory.
• Because of this fight, the benefit is taken by the Military officer Napoleon Bonaparte and rule over France in 1804.

Role of women in the revolution:

  1. The condition of women is bad in French society.
  2. On 5 October 1789, about 6000 women attack to the Paris Versailles.
  3. Because of this protest, Louis XVI and his family left the palace and went to Paris.
  4. Women do not have the right to vote and take education, only rich women take education and went to school.
  5. The woman makes the to club the society of Revolutionary and Republican woman and give the expression to the government for the basic rights.
  6. After some time the government take the basic right to the women:(a) Make a school for the women and have the education right. (b) Parents cannot force women to marry.(c) In the case of divorce men and women have equal right. (d) They have the right to do the job and business.
  7. In 1946 finally, women have the right to vote.

The abolition of slavery:

  1. The Caribbean – Martinique, Guadeloupe and San Domingo were the important suppliers of commodities such as tobacco, indigo, sugar and coffee.
  2. For this cultivation of these crops, the shortage of labour is increased in France.
  3. To solve the problem of labour shortage the Government of France following decision:
  4. The French Merchant went to Africa and purchase the slaves and come to France.
  5. French merchant sailed from the port of Bordeaux and Nantes, the condition of slaves was very bad and the France national assembly affairs to the Merchant.
  6. Finally, in 1794, the slavery system was stopped for some time through the convention.
  7. But after some time, Napoleon Bonaparte again starts the slavery system.
  8. The fight against the slavery system was started in France.
  9. Finally, in 1848, the slavery system was abolished in France.

The revolution and everyday life:

  1. • They get freedom of speech.
  2. • Free press without censorship.
  3. • Through the newspaper and books, the idea of liberty and equality wad spread in France.

Napoleon dictatorship:

  1. In 1804, Napoleon Bonaparte crowned himself emperor of France.
  2. He set her family member in the Throne of the neighbouring European countries.
  3. He introduced many laws such as the protection of private property and a uniform system of weight and measures provided by the decimal system
  4. In 1815, finally, he was defeated in the Waterloo.

The French revolution Class 9 questions and answers

Q1). Describe the circumstances leading to the outbreak of revolutionary protest?

Ans- The circumstances leading to the outbreak of revolutionary protest in France work are -:

(i)  The new king found an empty treasury.

(ii) Long years of war had drained the financial resources of France.

(iii)  Lenders began to charge 10 % interest on loans.

(iv) the cost of maintaining an army the state was forced to increase taxes.

(v) the French society was divided into three estates.

(vi) . Only the members of the third estates paid taxes.

(vii) The members of first two were exemption from paying taxes to the estate.

(ix)  The church too extracted it’s share of taxes.

(x)  A number of indirect taxes which were lived on articles of consumption like salt or tobacco.

(xi)  Taxes was by the third estate alone.

Q2). Which groups of French society benefited from the revolution? Which groups were forced to relinquish power? which sections of society would have been disappointed with the outcome of the revolution ?

Ans- (i)  Group Beneficial for of revolution work are peasents, artitions, small pleaeants, landless labour, servants, sloves ,lawyers, doctors and workers.

(ii)  Groups which were forced to relinquish power are people of first estates (novel) people of the second estate (clergy).

Q3). Describe the legacy of the French Revolution for the people of the world during the nineteenth and twentieth century?

Ans- (i) The ideas of Liberty and democratic rights were the most important Legacy of French Revolution.

(ii) This friend from France to the rest of Europe during 19th century feudal systems were abolished.

(iii)  Colonised people reworked the idea freedom from bandage into their movements.

(iv)  Tipu Sultan and Ram Mohan Roy to the ideas conveying from Revolutionary France.

Q4). Draw up a list of Democratic right we enjoy today whose Origins could be traced to the French Revolution?

Ans- The rights which we enjoyed today are -:

(i)  Right to freedom of speech ( Express expression in assembly to form movement.

(ii)  Right to Equality – (gender, caste and religion).

(iii) Right to Vote – (Universal adult franchise).

(iv) Right to life.

(v)  Rule of law.

(vi)  Right to property etc.

Q5). How would you explain the rise of Napoleon ?

Ans- (i)  After the falls off the Jacobin government allowed the weather is middle classes to seize power.

(ii)  A new constitution was introduced.

(iii)  Ended the vote to non-propertize section of society.

(iv) It provided for two elected and legislative council.

(v)  This then appointed a directory executive made up of five members.

(vi) This was meant as a safeguard against the concentration of power.

(vii) The political instability the directory proved the way for rise military director Napoleon Bonaparte.

History Chapter 1 – Class 9 Extra questions

Q1). Who was the system of estates in French society organised?

Ans- first and second estates-:

  • They were clergy Noble people.
  • 60% of land was owned by novels Church and rich people.
  • They enjoyed privileges by birth.
  • They were excited from paying taxes.
  • Peasants had to render tear services.

Third estates-:

  • There were three categories big businessman emergent lawyer etc.
  • Peasant and artisans.
  • Small peasant landless labour and servant etc.
  • Peasants were 90% of the population.
  • Taxes were paid by third estates only.
  • They had to pay direct and indirect taxes on partitions of everyday use.

Q2) . Do stance species excuse in France during old required?

Ans- (i) The population of France rows from the 23 million to 28 billion.

(ii) This lead to a rapid increase in the demand for food grains.

(iii)  Production of grain could not keep pace with the demand.

(iv) So the price of bread which was the staple diet of the majority Rose rapidly.

(v)  Wedges did not keep pace with the rise in prices.

(vi)  so the gap between the poor and the rich widened.

(vii) Whenever drought or hail reduce the harvest this lead to a substance crisis.

Q3). What lived to the emergence of the middle class of the 18th century?

Ans- (i)  Peasants and workers had participated in Revolt against increasing paid and food security.

(ii)They lacked the mean and programs.

(iii) The 18th century witnesses the emergency of social group, termed the middle class.

(iv) They earned their wealth through and expanding over Seas trade from the manufacture of goods.

(iv)  There were either exported or brought any by richer member of society.

(v) All of these were educated and believe that no group in society should be privileged by birth.

(vii) These Ideas based on Freedom and equal laws.

Q4). Describe The circumstances that lead to tennis court oath ?

Ans- (i) Louis XVI Called together and assembly of the estate general to pass proposal for new taxes.

(ii)  Voting in the estate general in the past had been conducted according to the principal of each state had one vote.

(iii) But members of the third state that voting now be conducted by the Assembly as a whole.

(iv) Each member should have one vote.

(v) When the king rejected this proposal member of the third estate walked out of the assembly in protest.

(vi)  They Declear them self on national assembly deposit Till they had drafted a constitution for France.

(vii)  It would limit the power of the  Monarch.

(viii) He brought out a journal and delivered powerful speeches of the crowd assembled at Versailles.

Q5). Describe the event that led to grant of recognition to  national assembly ?

Ans-  (i) The national assembly was busy at Versailles  drafting a constitution.

(ii)  The rest of France seethed with turmoil.

(iii) A severe winter had meant a bad harvest.

(iv)  The price of bread Rose Baker exploited the situation and hoarded supplies.

(v) After spending hours in long queues of the bakery. Crowds of angry woman stromed into the shops.

(vi) The agitated crowd stromed and destroyed the Bastille.

(vii) They looted grain and burnt down document containing record of Monerical dues.

(viii) A large number of Nobel Fled from their homes.

(ix)  Many of them migrating to neighbouring countries.

(x)  Louis XVI finally accorded recognition to the national assembly and accepted the principal.

Q6). Write a note on new constitution of France after monarch ?

Ans- (i)  the national assembly completed the draft of the constitution in 1791.

(ii)  Its main object was to limit the powers of monarchs.

(iii) .  These powers of the Legislature, executive and Judiciary This made France constitutional monarchy.

Q7).  Define the political system in France before year 1791 ?

Ans- (i) political system was indirectly elected.

(ii)  Citizen voted for a group of electors.

(iii)  Not all citizen had right to vote.

(iv) Only men above 25 years of age who paid taxes were given the status to active citizen.

(v) the remaining men and all women were classed as passive citizen.

Q8). What were the significance of political symbol ?

Ans- ●   the broken chain significance freedom.

● The eye within a triangle radiating light shows knowledge.

● Sceptre symbol of royal power.

● Snake biting eternity.

● Red phrygian cap worm by a slove upon becoming free.

● Blue white red the national colours of France.

● Winged woman personification of the laws.

● Law tablet all and all are equal before it.

Q9). What was revolutionary wars and it’s effect ?

Ans-(i)  Although Louis XVI had signed the constitution.

(ii)  He entered into secret negotiations with the king of perrsia.

(iii)  They plans to send troops to put down the events.

(vi) Before this could happen, the national assembly declare war against preesia and Austria.

(Effects)

(i)  Losses And economical difficulties to the people.

(ii) The men were away fighting at the front.

(iii) Women were left to the cupe with the task of earning.

(iv) A living and looking after their families.

Q10). What Led to the formation of a Jacobin club? who was its member ? what they were achievements?

Ans- (i) The member of jacobin club belong manily to the less prosperous section of society.

(ii)  They included small shop keepers artition such as shoe maker, pastry Cooks watch-maker printers as well as servant and daily wage workers.

(iii) Many were not satisfied with them.

(iv) This lead to the formation of jacobin club.

(v) Election were held from man 21 years and above have got the right to vote.

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